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The Science of ThinkWell
Bacopa (Bacopa monnieri) is a succulent ground creeper with white to violet or pale blue flowers and is found throughout India in wet areas. Traditionally used in Ayurveda to enhance memory, studies have shown that oral administration of Bacopa to normal rats significantly improves memory and learning ability1 and inhibits free radical damage to brain cells in vitro.2 Increased learning ability and memory was demonstrated in normal rats orally administered active constituents of Bacopa known as bacosides.3,4 Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled studies of Bacopa using well-validated tests in healthy adults have shown that daily use increases the retention of new information,5,6 the learning rate, and the rate that visual information is processed.6
Gotu Kola (Centella asiatica) is an edible creeper with light violet flowers. Like Bacopa, Gotu kola is is found in moist tropical areas throughout India and is traditionally used in Ayurveda to enhance memory.7 Got kola has also been used promote mental calm and relaxation during meditation.8 Studies show that orally administered to normal rats, Gotu kola significantly increases memory,9,10 learning ability, antioxidant activity in the brain9 and resistance to psychological and physical stress.11,12 In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, healthy men and women given a single oral dose of Gotu kola extract showed a significantly reduced response to acute stress.8
Phosphatidylserine (PS) (fos-fa-tidle-serine) is derived from soy lecithin. Rats fed PS daily showed significantly enhanced cognitive abilities.13 In a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study in healthy men and women, PS (400 mg/day taken with meals) produced a significant decrease in the level of psychological stress in response to emotional and mental stressors. A further benefit was found in their levels of the stress hormone cortisol which were significantly dampened in response to the stressors.14
Vinpocetine ( vin-po-se-teen ) is derived from an alkaloid found in the leaves of lesser periwinkle (Vinca minor). In healthy adults, an oral dose of Vinpocetine improved the flow of red blood cells.15 In vitro, Vinpocetine was found to act as an antioxidant that scavenges oxygen free radicals.16,17 Tests using isolated brain cells have shown that Vinpocetine protects against damaging effects of free radicals 17-19 and low oxygen levels.20,21 Taken orally by healthy adults, Vinpocetine enters the brain after only ten minutes.22 However, for greatest bioavailability it is best taken 60 minutes after a meal.23
1. Singh HK, Dhawan BN. Effect of Bacopa monniera Linn. (Brahmi) extract on avoidance responses in rat. J Ethnopharmacol. 1982;5(2):205-214.
2. Russo A, Acquaviva R, Borrelli F, Campisi A, Raciti G, Vanella A. Nitric oxide-related toxicity in cultured astrocytes: Effect of Bacopa monniera. Life Sci. 2003;73(12):1517-1526.
3. Singh HK, Rastogi RP, Srimal RC, Dhawan BN. Effect of bacosides A and B on avoidance responses in rats. Phytother Res. 1988;2(2):70-75.
4. Singh HK, Dhawan BN. Neuropsychopharmacological effects of the Ayurvedic nootropic Bacopa monniera Linn. (Brahmi). Indian J Pharmacol. 1997;29(5):S359-S365.
5. Roodenrys S, Booth D, Bulzomi S, Phipps A, Micallewf C, Smoker J. Chronic effects of brahmi (Bacopa monniera) on human memory. Neuropsychopharmacol. 2002;27(2):279-281.
6. Stough C, Lloyd J, Clarke J, Downey LA, Hutchison CW, Rodgers T, Nathan PJ. The chronic effects of an extract of Bacopa monniera (Brahmi) on cognitive function in healthy human subjects. Psychopharmacology. 2001;156(4):481-484.
7. Kirtikar KR, Basu BD, An ICS. Indian Medicinal Plants. Vol. 2. 2nd ed. Dehra Dun, India: Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh; 1993:1193-1195.
8. Bradwejn J, Zhou Y, Koszycki D, Shlik J. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study on the effects of gotu kola (Centella asiatica) on acoustic startle response in healthy subjects. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2000;20(6):680-684.
9. Rao MKG, Rao MS, Rao GM.
Package Description: 60 Vegetarian Capsules
Serving Size: 1 Capsule
Number of Servings: 60
Other Ingredients: Vegetarian capsules, silicon dioxide.
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